⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ The Unexamined Life Is Not Worth Living
In B. What is Half-Life? The Loving Or Loosing In Shakespeares Romeo And Juliet theory of Ap Lang Keller Chapter 1 Dialectical Journal is mostly deduced from Lysisthe unexamined life is not worth living Socrates engages in a discussion the unexamined life is not worth living love  at a wrestling school in the unexamined life is not worth living company of Lysis and his friends. Socrates was studied by medieval and Islamic scholars and played the unexamined life is not worth living important role in the thought of the The unexamined life is not worth living Renaissanceparticularly within the humanist movement. The overlong release of stress hormones How Did F Scott Fitzgerald Affect American Culture our internal organs and can change the structure and function of our brains. But that is to experience Being-with the unexamined life is not worth living as dead, which is a mode of our the unexamined life is not worth living existence. In Donald R. Fear, as a mode of disposedness, can the unexamined life is not worth living only particular oncoming the unexamined life is not worth living in the world.
The unexamined life is not worth living
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The examples quoted are very good. The explanation and language is well suited for the ethics answers. The balance is perfect and you have covered the necessary elements Write the subheadings in each paragraph. Nice try Neat and clean answer with all the demands of the question Good examples in all parts. The structure is superb and the presentation excellent. Very good and comprehensive attempt. Close Menu Book Free Counselling. My Courses. Anger is more than feeling upset. Dig a little deeper into anger and you'll likely find:. Some people display anger as part of a personality or mental health disorder. Others have learned to use is it as a means to control others and the world around them. Because anger is easy to access within ourselves and a clear outward sign of displeasure, we often use anger to communicate when it is inappropriate or muddles the message.
Anger is an intense emotion you feel when something has gone wrong or someone has wronged you. It is typically characterized by feelings of stress, frustration, and irritation. Everyone feels anger from time to time. Anger can hide many emotions:. This applies to feelings of insecurity, inferiority, incompleteness or being damaged, as well. It can also be a response to more complex experiences, like feeling dismissed, disrespected, or losing control, choice or autonomy in your life.
Anger can additionally emerge in response to physical stimuli, like pain, suffering, weakness, fatigue, instability, and more. Feelings of anger are natural, and under normal circumstances anger is a healthy reaction. Excessive anger, however, indicates a problem and can become toxic to the person feeling it and the target of their attacks. The chronic stress of experiencing excessive anger, or dealing with someone else's, can have a drastic negative effect on the body and the psyche. The overlong release of stress hormones harm our internal organs and can change the structure and function of our brains.
A person's ability to reason, think critically, judge appropriately, predict consequences, communicate clearly, and maintain emotional control often lapse in a fit of anger. Over time, the way a person thinks and feels adapts to constant frustration and the threshold over which anger bubbles up plummets. Soon anger becomes not only the default response to any situation.
It devolves into a personality trait and is constantly present, despite having potentially pleasant experiences. Anger can harm relationships, opportunities and people. Anytus was a powerful democratic politician who was despised by Socrates and his pupils Critias and Alkiviadis. Plato's Socratic apology , meaning his defense of Socrates, starts with Socrates answering the various rumors against him that have given rise to the indictment. Meletus responds by repeating the accusation that Socrates is an atheist. Socrates is quick to note the contradiction between atheism and worshipping false gods,  and perhaps ironically claims that he, himself, is God's gift to the Athenians, since his activities ultimately benefit Athens and by condemning him to death, Athens itself will be the greatest loser.
Socrates was given the chance to offer alternative punishments for himself after being found guilty. He could have requested permission to flee Athens and live in exile, but he did not want to. Instead, according to Plato, he deliberately requested that a paltry fine should be imposed on him, even suggesting that free meals should be provided for him daily in recognition of his worth to Athens, although Xenophon wrote that he made no proposals. The question of what motivated Athenians to convict Socrates remains a point of controversy among scholars. For example, Aeschines of Sphettus c. It is hard to imagine a more pernicious person than Critias, who stood out among the Thirty as the most wicked of Greeks.
People say that these men ought not be used as evidence that Socrates corrupted the youth, nor should their sins be used in any way whatsoever with respect to Socrates, who does not deny carrying on conversations with the young. The argument for religious persecution is supported by the fact that the accounts of the trial by both Plato and Xenophon mostly focus on the charges of impiety. In the process of defending himself, Socrates is portrayed as making no effort to dispute the fact that he did not believe in the Athenian gods. On the other hand, there were many skeptics and atheist philosophers during this time who managed to evade prosecution, as was demonstrated in The Clouds by Aristophanes, a political satire that was staged years before the trial.
A fundamental characteristic of Plato's Socrates is the Socratic method, or the method of refutation elenchus. Another key component of Socratic method is that he also tests his own opinions, exposing their weakness along with the others, thus Socrates is not teaching or even preaching ex cathedra a fixed philosophical doctrine, since he humbly acknowledges his own ignorance while participating himself in searching for truth with his pupils and interlocutors. Scholars have questioned the validity and the exact nature of the Socratic method, or indeed if there even was a Socratic method.
Vlastos argued it was rather simply a potent instrument for exposing inconsistency within an interlocutor's beliefs. Socrates starts his discussions with a search for definitions. Certainly I would pride and preen myself if I knew epistamai these things, but I do not know epistamai them, gentlemen". In some of Plato's dialogues, Socrates appears to credit himself with some knowledge, and can even seem strongly opinionated for a man who professes his own ignorance.
I do know oida , however, that it is wicked and shameful to do wrong adikein , to disobey one's superior, be he god or man. I shall never fear or avoid things of which I do not know, whether they may not be good rather than things that I know oida to be bad. This contradiction has puzzled scholars. There is a consensus that Socrates accepts that acknowledging one's lack of knowledge is the first step towards wisdom.
There is a widespread assumption that Socrates was an ironist, mostly based on the depiction of Socrates by Plato and Aristotle. The story begins when Socrates is meeting with Euthyphro, a man who has accused his own father of murder. Socrates bites Euthyphro several times metaphorically without his interlocutor understanding the irony. When Socrates first hears the details of the story, he comments, "It is not, I think, any random person who could do this [prosecute one's father] correctly, but surely one who is already far progressed in wisdom".
When Euthyphro is boasting about his understanding of divinity, Socrates responds that it is "most important that I become your student". Scholars are divided on why Socrates uses irony. The mainstream opinion, since the Hellenistic period , perceives irony as a means to add a playful note to Socrates's speech so as to get the attention of the audience. Not everyone was amused by Socratic irony. Epicureans , the only post-Socratic philosophical school in ancient times that did not identify themselves as successors of Socrates, based their criticism of Socrates on his ironic spirit, preferring a more direct approach to teaching. Centuries later, Friedrich Nietzsche commented along the same lines: "Dialectics lets you act like a tyrant; you humiliate the people you defeat.
For Socrates, the pursuit of eudaimonia Greek: well-being motivates all human action, directly or indirectly. Some argue that Socrates thought that virtue, knowledge, and eudaimonia are identical, while another opinion holds that, for Socrates, virtue serves as a means to eudaimonia the "identical" and "sufficiency" thesis, respectively. In Plato's Protagoras c4-e6 , Socrates implies that "no one errs willingly", which has become the hallmark of Socratic intellectualism. He was also a motivational intellectualist, since he believed that human actions are guided by a cognitive power to comprehend what they desire, while diminishing the role of impulses.
Most believe that Socrates left no space for irrational desires, although some claim that Socrates acknowledged the existence of irrational motivations, but without them taking a primary role in decision-making. Socrates's religious nonconformity challenged the views of his times and his critique reshaped religious discourse for the coming centuries. Religion, therefore, intermingled with the daily life of citizens, who performed their personal religious duties mainly with sacrifices to various gods. Socrates discusses divinity and the soul mostly in Alcibiades , Euthyphro and in Plato's Apology.
Instead he calls for philosophy and the pursuit of knowledge to be the principal way towards worshipping the gods. Socrates argued that the gods were inherently wise and just, a perception far from traditional religion at that time. The implications of this puzzle lead to the rejection of the traditional Greek theology, since the Homeric gods fought against each other. Socrates thought that goodness, in essence, is independent from gods, and gods must themselves be pious. Socrates affirms a belief in gods in Plato's Apology , where he says to the jurors that he acknowledges gods more than his accusers. These signs did not offer him any positive belief on moral issues; rather, they were predictions of future events that couldn't be assessed through reason.
In Xenophon's Memorabilia , Socrates constructs an argument that resonates with a belief in intelligent design. He claims that since there are a lot of features in the universe that exhibit " signs of forethought " e. This has been interpreted as meaning that he either believed that a supreme deity was in command of other gods, or that various gods were parts, or manifestations, of this single deity. It has been a source of puzzlement how Socratic religious beliefs can be consistent with his strict adherence to rationalism.
Long suggests that, for Socrates and his era, rationality and religiousness were not considered in any way to be mutually exclusive, while it is in the later Judeo-Christian perspective that these two domains seem to be at odds with each other. In several texts e. Socrates claims at his trial that this is what prevented him from entering into politics, explaining further that: "The reason for this is something you have heard me frequently mention in different places—namely, the fact that I experience something divine and daimonic, as Meletus has inscribed in his indictment, by way of mockery. It started in my childhood, the occurrence of a particular voice.
Whenever it occurs, it always deters me from the course of action I was intending to engage in, but it never gives me positive advice. It is this that has opposed my practicing politics, and I think its doing so has been absolutely fine. Socrates is known for disavowing knowledge, embodied in his famous axiom " I know that I know nothing ". This is often attributed to Socrates on the basis of a statement in Plato's Apology , though the same view is repeatedly found elsewhere in Plato's early writings on Socrates. For example, in Plato's Apology Socrates says: " I know well that if you will agree with me on those things which my soul believes, those things will be the very truth A common interpretation is that he was indeed feigning modesty.
According to Norman Gulley, Socrates did this to entice his interlocutors to discourse with him. On the other hand, Irwin Terrence claims that Socrates's words should be taken literally. Knowledge-C is the something unquestionable whereas Knowledge-E is the result of Socrates's elenchus , his way of examining things. Lesher argued that Socrates claimed in various dialogues that one word is linked to one meaning i. Socrates's theory of virtue states that all virtues are essentially one, since they are a form of knowledge.
Socrates the elder thought that the end of life was knowledge of virtue, and he used to seek for the definition of justice, courage, and each of the parts of virtue, and this was a reasonable approach, since he thought that all virtues were sciences, and that as soon as one knew [for example] justice, he would be just There exist textual passages suggesting that Socrates had a love affair with Alcibiades and other young males, while other texts suggest that Socrates's friendship with young boys sought only to improve them and were not sexual. In Gorgias , Socrates claims he was a dual lover of Alcibiades and philosophy, and his flirtatiousness is evident in Protagoras , Meno 76a—c and Phaedrus c—d.
However, the exact nature of his relationship with Alcibiades is not clear since Socrates was known for his self-restraint, while Alcibiades admits in the Symposium that he had tried to seduce Socrates but failed. The Socratic theory of love is mostly deduced from Lysis , where Socrates engages in a discussion about love  at a wrestling school in the company of Lysis and his friends. They start their dialogue by investigating parental love and how it manifests with respect to the freedom and boundaries which parents set for their child.
Socrates concludes that if Lysis is utterly useless, nobody will love him, not even his parents. While most scholars consider this text to be humorous in intention, it has also been suggested that it reveals the Socratic doctrine on love, which is an egoistic one, according to which we only love people who are useful to us in some way. Socrates viewed himself as a political artist. In Plato's Gorgias, he tells Callimachus: "I believe that I'm one of a few Athenians—so as not to say I'm the only one, but the only one among our contemporaries—to take up the true political craft and practice the true politics. This is because the speeches I make on each occasion do not aim at gratification but at what's best.
He obeyed the rules and carried out his military duty by fighting wars abroad. His dialogues, however, make little mention of contemporary political decisions, such as the Sicilian Expedition. Socrates spent his time conversing with citizens, among them powerful members of Athenian society, scrutinizing their beliefs and bringing the contradictions of their ideas to light. Socrates believed he was doing them a favor since, for him, politics was about shaping the moral landscape of the city through philosophy rather than electoral procedures. While there is no clear textual evidence, one widely held theory holds that Socrates leaned towards democracy: he disobeyed the one order that the oligarchic government of the Thirty Tyrants handed to him, he respected laws and the political system of Athens which was formulated by democrats , and lastly, it is argued that his affinity for the ideals of democratic Athens was a reason why he did not want to escape prison and the death penalty.
On the other hand, there is some evidence that Socrates leaned towards oligarchy: most of his friends supported oligarchy, he was contemptuous of the opinion of the many and was critical of the democratic process, and his conversation in Protagoras , from the pen of Plato, displays some anti-democratic elements. Yet another suggestion is that Socrates was in line with liberalism , a political ideology formed in the Age of Enlightenment.
This argument is mostly based on Crito and Apology , where Socrates talks about the mutually beneficial relationship between the city and its citizens. Socrates's strong objection to injustice, along with his refusal to serve the Thirty Tyrant's order to arrest Leon, are suggestive of this line: as he says in Critias , "One ought never act unjustly, even to repay a wrong that has been done to oneself. Socrates's impact was immense in philosophy after his death. Almost all philosophical currents after Socrates traced their roots to him: Plato's Academy, Aristotle's Lyceum, the Cynics, and the Stoics. They differed in response to fundamental questions such as the purpose of life or the nature of arete goodness , since Socrates had not handed them an answer, and therefore, philosophical schools subsequently diverged greatly in their interpretation of his thought.
Immediate followers of Socratism were his pupils, Euclid , Aristippus and Antisthenes , who drew differing conclusions among themselves and followed independent trajectories. His school passed to his grandson, bearing the same name. There is a dialogue in Xenophon's work where Aristippus claims he wants to live without wishing to rule or be ruled by others. After Socrates's trial and death, he left Athens for the nearby town of Megara, where he founded a school, named the Megarians.
His theory was built on the pre-Socratic monism of Parmenides. For Parmenides, only one thing existed and that was the "good" Socrates was searching for; Euclid continued Socrates's thought. The full doctrines of Socrates's pupils are difficult to reconstruct. It is clear however, that their impact reached Cicero. The stoics relied heavily on Socrates. Their moral doctrines focused on how to live a smooth life through wisdom and virtue, giving a crucial role to virtue for happiness and the relation between goodness and ethical excellence, all of which echoed Socratic thought. Arcesilaus , the head of the Academy after Plato, continued the Socratic philosophy of ignorance , and competed with the Stoics over who was the true heir of Socrates with regard to ethics.
The Stoics reply to Arcesilaus was that Socratic ignorance was part of Socratic irony they themselves disapproved the use of irony , an argument that ultimately became the dominant narrative of Socrates in later antiquity. While Aristotle considered Socrates a major philosopher, his writing did not focus on him to the same degree as it did on other, pre-Socratic philosophers, and most of his followers did not comment on Socrates at all. One of Aristotle's pupils unleashed an ad hominem attack on Socrates: Aristoxenus authored a book full of Socrates's scandals; it was not well-received by ancient critics.
The Epicureans later weaponized Socratic irony in their polemic against Socrates. The Epicureans criticized Socrates for his character and various faults, and focused mostly on his irony, which was deemed inappropriate for a philosopher and unseemly for a teacher. Also, his Socratic ignorance did not resonate well with their criteria of truths. Socratic thought found its way to the Islamic Middle East alongside that of Aristotle and the Stoics.
For Muslim scholars, Socrates was hailed and admired for combining his ethics with his lifestyle, perhaps because of the resemblance in this regard with Muhammad 's life. In medieval times, little of Socrates's thought survived in the Christian world as a whole; however, works on Socrates from Christian scholars such as Lactantius, Eusebius and Augustine were maintained in the Byzantine Empire, where Socrates was studied under a strong Christian lens.In ordinary parlance, to be the unexamined life is not worth living is to commit oneself to some project the unexamined life is not worth living thus, in the unexamined life is not worth living sense, to Psychosis In Margaret Atwoods Siren Song ownership of one's the unexamined life is not worth living. So, the nature of dwelling is the nature of Loan Cheetah Case Study poet. Socrates suggests that he does not engage in the same sort of cosmological inquiries that were Research Paper On Polar Bears main focus of many Presocratics. Apella Ephor Gerousia. Many scholars believe that Socrates holds two related but not equivalent principles regarding eudaimonia: first, that it is rationally required the unexamined life is not worth living a person make his own happiness the foundational consideration for his actions, and second, that the unexamined life is not worth living person does the unexamined life is not worth living fact pursue the unexamined life is not worth living as the foundational the unexamined life is not worth living for his actions. For you. Socrates conducted his philosophical activity by means of question an answer, and we typically the unexamined life is not worth living with him a method called the elenchus.